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November 15, 2022

# Roman Numbers - Laws, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

When you imagine numericals nowadays, the first thing that springs to mind is the decimal method we utilize daily. This method, however, is not the single way to portray numbers. There are multiple methods used by different cultures all over the world that use all kinds of symbols. One of approach is Roman numerals.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numerals have been a way of expressing numericals utilizing a blend of letters from the Latin alphabet. It existed across the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still taught in school, which is possibly why you have come across this article.

Now, we are gonna to look at Roman numerals, definition, how they work, and how to change Roman numbers to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

First, let's take a quick look at the past of Roman numerals. Roman numbers were first used by the historic Romans, as you may have expected from the name. They were utilized in several angles of the Roman world, including trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Presently, its main use is primarily due to artistic reasons. You may have seen Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, page numbering, chapter numbers, copyright dates, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman numeral system consist of numbers employing a mixture of characters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are combined to form groups that represent numbers. Seven characters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, represent the numericals 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, individually. You can then mix these numbers to represent any value in the number system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is established on the ideas of place value, Roman numbers are based on cumulative and subtractive principles. This refers that a Roman number's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its particular parts. Another important difference is that the decimal method is founded on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numbers are established on the numbers 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's take a look at a few practical examples of Roman numbers.

The video game street fighter IV was released in arcades way back in 2008. If we look at the numericals in the title, we see it consist of a V in it. This is because the numerical 5 in Roman numerals is portrayed by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Hence, we grasp that this is the 4th entry in the series employing the characteristics we will discuss further ahead.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the last to enter the original trilogy. Looking at the value portrayed, it comprises a V ensued by an I. Therefore, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, letting us know this Star Wars film is the 6th entry in the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is crucial to comprehend the numeric value of all the characters. To help make this operation easy, here is a chart with all Latin characters with assigned number values.

 Decimal Number Roman Numeral 1 I 2 II 3 III 4 IV 5 V 6 VI 7 VII 8 VIII 9 IX 10 X 11 XI 12 XII 13 XIII 14 XIV 15 XV 16 XVI 17 XVII 18 XVIII 19 XIX 20 XX 21 XXI 22 XXII 23 XXIII 24 XXIV 25 XXV 26 XXVI 27 XXVII 28 XXVIII 29 XXIX 30 XXX 31 XXXI 32 XXXII 33 XXXIII 34 XXXIV 35 XXXV 36 XXXVI 37 XXXVII 38 XXXVIII 39 XXXIX 40 XL 41 XLI 42 XLII 43 XLIII 44 XLIV 45 XLV 46 XLVI 47 XLVII 48 XLVIII 49 XLIX 50 L 51 LI 52 LII 53 LIII 54 LIV 55 LV 56 LVI 57 LVII 58 LVIII 59 LIX 60 LX 61 LXI 62 LXII 63 LXIII 64 LXIV 65 LXV 66 LXVI 67 LXVII 68 LXVIII 69 LXIX 70 LXX 71 LXXI 72 LXXII 73 LXXIII 74 LXXIV 75 LXXV 76 LXXVI 77 LXXVII 78 LXXVIII 79 LXXIX 80 LXXX 81 LXXXI 82 LXXXII 83 LXXXIII 84 LXXXIV 85 LXXXV 86 LXXXVI 87 LXXXVII 88 LXXXVIII 89 LXXXIX 90 XC 91 XCI 92 XCII 93 XCIII 94 XCIV 95 XCV 96 XCVI 97 XCVII 98 XCVIII 99 XCIX 100 C 200 CC 300 CCC 400 CD 500 D 600 DC 700 DCC 800 DCCC 900 CM 1000 M

## How to Transform from Roman Numerals to Everyday Numericals

Considering we have the useful table of Roman numerals, we can use that information to change numbers back and forth simply. Following these steps, you will transform these values at any time.

### Steps to Convert Roman numerals to Decimal Numericals

To transform Roman numbers to regular numbers, we will utilize the additive and subtractive principles we went through.

• Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

• If the Roman number to its right is lesser in value, then add the both values.

• If the Roman number to its right is more in value, subtract the Roman numeral on the right from the Roman numeral to its left.

• All you must do now is replicate this method unless you arrive at the end of the Roman number group.

Let's check out how you can convert Roman numerals with a some examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

• Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, which is L or 50.

• The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Considering 10 is lesser than 50, we sum the two values and get 60.

• The Roman number to the right of X is X again. We sum 10 to 60 and find 70.

• The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Since 5 is less than 70, we add the both values and we find 75.

• The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 75, we sum the two values and we find 76.

We halt here at the end of the Roman numeral group. Consequently, the Roman numeral LXXVI is equivalent to the decimal number 76.

### Example 2

Take into account the Roman numeral MCMIII.

• Begin with the leftmost Roman number, which is M or 1000.

• The Roman numeral to its right is C or 100. Since 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value means 900.

• The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 1900, we add the two values and get 1901.

• The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

• The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and the answer is 1903.

Since we have arrived the end of the Roman number group, we halt here with our answer. So, the Roman numeral MCMIII is equivalent to the regular number 1903.

With this knowledge and a some practice, you will change Roman numerals to regular numbers like a professional!

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